Taxation as limitation to the climate changing: Portugal as a study case

Prof. Carlos Rodrigues
Prof. Ana Campina

Along the Millennium climate changing has been present in the Earth structure
change, however, due the environment pollution, in the last two centuries these
changes, in an accelerated rhythm. This can be studied by the atmosphere, by the
earth crust, by the maritime changes, caused by people, especially by the
massive use of the fossil fuels and the not controlled and excessive use of plastic
materials. The political powers in the global, regional or national contexts, are
obliged to take urgent measures to minimize those effects, working to a
sustainable planet, generating ecosystems where the biodiversity would be
structured and supported in concrete actions.
Our research and study are based on the utilization of the taxing of the polluting
elements as the measure to minimize this scourge. The study presents Portugal
as example, that has generated taxes to charge the cars more pollutants,
benefiting those that are less pollutant, as the cars moved exclusively by
electricity. This context and political decisions promote limiting factors to the
utilization of more pollutant cars but are a protection benefit to the “environment
friends”. This study allows us to research and debate the taxing of the plastic bags
given by the stores to their clients, to transport the goods sold, and how this
taxation had such a strong impact having as a consequence a significant
decrease of the utilization of the plastic bags. This way, there are an important
result, i.e., the benefiting from the taxing to the environment sustainability and the
consequent using of the biodegradable products to the bags production and use.
Finally, we conclude, by the scientific research and consequent study, that the
“green” taxing has a fundamental role to structure and develop a sustainable
environment. In Portugal, we can assume there is a gradual involvement by the
political power and the society, specially by an education for the environment
protection through taxation, that has been faced mostly positively as a demand for
the Earth and Human survival.