Terrorism and Insecurity in the Horn of Africa: an Appraisal of the Activities of Al-Shabaab, 2007-2017

Mr. Oluwabamidele Akangbe
Dr. ADEYINKA Samson Adeniji

The of Horn of Africa have been very volatile in recent time as a result of incessant attacks on several countries from Al-Shabaab and its deadly allies’ terrorist. This paper assesses Terrorism and Insecurity in the Horn of Africa: An Appraisal of the activities of Al-Shabaab terrorist group. Research carried shows that most states in the Horn of Africa are faced with a number of challenges towards contending with terrorism and insecurity which is attributed to factors such as terrorist networks being more dispersed and less centralized, corrupt immigration officials and weak immigration/border laws, radicalization of the youths based on some fanatical doctrines as well as poorly equipped police that are not well train in tackling terrorist activities. The study adopted a process tracing mechanism for its analysis. This research work makes use of both primary and secondary source of data for its analysis and deterrence approach was adopted as a framework of analysis. The following questions were addressed: What is the extent of the terrorism threat in the Horn of Africa Region? What are the characteristic of the Horn in terms of insecurity that render it a fertile ground for breeding terrorist networks? And which countries are most vulnerable to the threat and why? The study revealed that: the Al-Shabaab terrorist group cut across most of the state of the Horn; Failing state, ungoverned large space of land in the Horn of Africa has contributed to security challenges in the area; and some of major causes of terrorism in the Horn of Africa is based on social and economic exclusion of the people among others. The following recommendations were arrived at: this includes adherence to immigration rules, enhanced structural chain of command within the individual state security agencies, investment in efficient policing and equipment to help fight terror and embrace modern technology in the fight against terrorism.