In the last decade, Europe has been undergoing multiple crises. Starting with the Eurozone Crisis in 2009, several countries were forced to implement bailouts which imposed strict external constraints in order for states to re-finance their national budgets and public debts. The degree of austerity imposed was severe, and implemented across different countries in response to the economic crisis. From 2013, a refugee crisis ensued which saw the arrival of large numbers of migrants on the shores of the EU who then tended to regroup in northern EU countries. The EU institutions were forced to react, adapt and muddle through these crises. Thirdly, the UK voted to leave the EU in 2016, initiating a painful process of divorce from Europe that is ongoing. Enveloping and constraining these shocks, the EU is also experiencing a changed international environment. Since the election of Donald Trump, the traditional guarantees of the EU-US partnership which underlied much of the EU's world view has been questioned. The political consequences of these shocks are still unfolding across Europe, be it at the institutional level, at the policy level, and at a mass level. It has had potentially very large consequences for international relations, the way the EU works, how party systems have changed and how citizens relate to national and EU institutions. This section is interested in panels who address some of the issues which the EU faces today. Comparative perspectives are particularly welcome. All methodologies are welcome.
Dr. Marina Costa Lobo
Prof. Laura C. Ferreira-Pereira
Dr. Carlos Jalali